What is Candida Guilliermondii?
Candida Guilliermondii is one of the natural inhabitants of the microbiota in the host’s body. This species, although regarded to be one of the most serious infection causing pathogen, fails to make its mark as to what exact type of infection it can cause. But in some cases this uncommon yeast, can cause some serious deep-seated illnesses in those bodies which mostly have a suppressed immune system.
In 2009, a case study report on the effects of fungemia caused by Candida guilliermondii on patients suffering from haematological malignancies was published. Previous case studies were used to draw inference in this case. All the cases of Candida guilliermondii that were diagnosed between the year 1983 and 2005 were taken in to consideration. It was seen that 11.7% of all the cases were caused by C. guilliermondi. It further stated that 65.5% of the Candidemia cases caused by C. guilliermondii were from usage of central venous catheters and only 6.9% of the documented cases were due to invasive infections. While seven cases ended up with being fatal, only one of these cases was attributed to invasive Candidemia caused by C. guilliermondii.
This study concluded that C. guilliermondii was likely to make cancer patients more vulnerable to infections caused by it than other patients in general cases, which again goes to show that it makes immune compromised hosts from cancer more susceptible to its infections.
Pathogenicity of Candida Guilliermondii
Since, guilliermondi is one such species of the genus Candida, which is not only uncommon but has very less reference in terms of pathogenicity to begin with. It is saprophytic in nature and is known to be the cause of some serious infections. It mostly attacks hosts who have compromised immunity, or patients with cancer. Because its pathogenicity level and type are yet to be fully understood, it is not a known name in the world of most common infection causing pathogen. But, this doesn’t stop it from causing illnesses that have very severe outcomes, especially on patients with compromised immune resistance power as mentioned earlier.
One of the most important point to note about this uncommon pathogen, is that it barely shows sensitivity to common anti-fungal drugs, which is unlike the other species of Candida. It is yet to be concluded, if it shows widespread resistance to all types of anti-fungal drug or not, but most clinical trials have failed to prove major correlation among MICs and its resistance power. It is hence of great concern that this species may eventually adapt itself to resist all kinds of anti-fungal or inherit it, whatever may be the method, one way or the other, it will lead to greater complications in clinical settings.
Candida Guilliermondii – Role in Candidiasis
Even after being a part of the human microbiota Candida guilliermondii has proved over and over to be a pathogen, but its intensity has gone undetected for quite some time, which is why it is anticipated to have low pathogenicity. Within a certain time period (1997-2003) this species was isolated from 11 different patients, while three of these patients were excluded from further study due to evidence of colonization in their isolates, the other 8 remained under observation and study. Upon running blood tests, oesophagus biopsy and testing ascites fluid, 37.5% of them, that is 3 of them had previous history of compromised immunity system due to AIDS, organ transplantation and leukaemia. 87.5% of them stated that they had recent antibiotic use. The major medical procedures included: central venous catheter, peritoneal dialysis and abdominal surgery. While there was no susceptibility, according to the data obtained, it did show that the risk factors of being infected with C. guilliermondii were similar to other Candida species. It was also concluded through this study that the overall chance from being affected by Candida guilliermondii were lesser than others.
In 2006, a study in the Journal of Clinical Microbiology Clinical looked at isolates collected in between 1997 and 2003 from of 127 medical centres that participated in ARTEMIS DISK Antifungal Surveillance Program. The study was mainly done to show the rates of isolation of C. Guilliermondii in different geographic regions and over the mentioned time period. 1,34,715 isolates of different species of Candida were isolated from 127 different study sites from June 1997 to December 2003. C. guilliermondii was present in about 1% of the isolates that accounted for about 16 isolates. Over the total span of study, the frequency of C. guilliermondii strain did not change much. During this period 75,761 isolates were collected which contained about 1.4% C. guilliermondii species.
The susceptibility of C. guilliermondii to voriconazole8 and fluconazole varied from one geographic location to another. Overall, it was apparent that C. guilliermondii showed decreased susceptibility to fluconazole which was about 75.2%, compared to 97.8% of C. albicans. Across four large regions small variation in susceptibility to fluconazole was recognised.
Candida Guilliermondii, Susceptibility to Fluconazole – Journal of Clinical Microbiology Clinical – 2006 – By M. A. Pfaller, D. J. Diekema, M. Mendez, C. Kibbler
Susceptibility of Candida in Clinical Isolates – Journal of Clinical Microbiology – 2009 – By Shawn R. Lockhart, Shawn A. Messer and Michael A
Candida guilliermondii Fungemia – Journal of Clinical Microbiology – 2006 – By Corrado Girmenia, Giampaolo Pizzarelli and Francesco Cristini
Yeast Biotechnology – Book by Tulasi Satyanarayana and Gotthard Kunze – 2009